HEADS OF STATE AND GOVERNMENT
Heads of State and Government must prioritise those issues where strategic direction and leadership are needed most, issues which have the most impact on citizen’s lives and those that touch at the core of what good governance is all about.
At the Y8 2013, the Heads of State and Government Panel took on the themes of growth and global governance.
On the theme of growth, a clear priority is youth unemployment. Youth unemployment, across the developed and developing world, is crippling the confidence of a generation and has the potential to unleash widespread social and political instability. Decision makers have often appeared to have a ‘head in the sand’ approach to the huge numbers of young people who the current political and economic modus operandi is failing. Since the financial crisis of 2009, as companies have retrenched, youth and graduate starters have suffered the most as employers retreat to the higher end of the skills spectrum.
The best social protection is in skills and empowerment, which this global economic downturn is cruelly robbing young people of. In this communiqué, we call for a more robust process for understanding youth concerns at the level of G Summitry and the policy making process, we view labour market mobility and the incentivisation of training and employment of job-market entrants as critical, and set out some practical steps forward.
Development and jobs are not possible without a high quality international trade regime. Ultimately, an environment conducive to free trade, appropriately regulated and within a policy framework that encourages sustainable business behaviour, is the best guarantee we have against war. In order to underpin public and political support for free trade we must ensure that the global economic framework delivers for citizens in a balanced way, and as far as possible the gains from prosperity are evenly shared.
There are major challenges to citizens’ confidence in free world trade, including rising income equality, unbalanced and evasive tax management by multinational corporations, environmental degradation and persistent unemployment. These must be understood, not dismissed, and tackled head on. The UK believes that combating tax havens is also highly important to support revenue, but more significantly to build a global tax regime that citizens can find acceptable. When ordinary citizens, who may be struggling financially, see the super wealthy and large corporate beneficiaries of the global economy hiding corporate profits in trusts and off-shore tax havens they see less reason to support an open trade global economy.
In response, we call for deepen bilateral and regional trade agreements especially in the Asian and African regions, and for moves towards reducing fossil fuel subsidies, agricultural trade barriers and subsidies. Building on the 2013 G8 recommendations in Loch Erne, we call for the tax reform agenda to be expanded to the G20 level and for the separation of investment and retail banking, providing greater security for citizen’s savings from the risks of investment banking. We encourage the obligation of company reporting to include International Integrated Reporting Committee standards for environmental and social capital. Finally, we set out a number of data sharing improvements at the international level to provide better tax and financial transparency.
Prior to developing post-2015 goals, we believe that the failure of previous development goals must be recognised and understood in order to plan effectively for the next round of development goals. Our specific recommendations cover better target and milestone setting, focusing on communities based anti-poverty programmes, climate and gender issues.
On the theme of stability, global governance and understanding, first and foremost in the panel’s minds was the issue of transparency and counter corruption in governance. We propose extended implementation and robust sanctions-based enforcement of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention and a more harmonised system of online public feedback on policies and policy makers.
On Syria, Russian and US delegates led the way with joint recommendations on the establishment of “safety corridors” within Syria for civilians and refugees where regional peacekeepers would provide security and a no-fly zone would operate. We strongly support the implementation of an immediate ceasefire, the distribution of humanitarian aid and immediate concrete steps for providing funding for reconstruction in the area post-conflict. Paramount to this issue is an inclusive Geneva II conference, with all regional actors including Iran.
Reforming the IMF, World Bank and UN Security Council to better reflect the economic situation of the 21st century was seen as critical for future legitimacy, and we offer practical proposals to move forward with this.
Heads of State and Government final topic was on strengthening and institutionalising cultural and academic exchange. This brought out a significant wave of energy, as all delegates were clear on the importance for economic growth and better cultural understanding of expanded and targeted people-to-people exchange programmes across business, politics, academia and the arts. Globalisation means policy makers and decision makers from all other fields of life need to have an intimate understanding of the cultures and individualisms in other nations.
We commend these recommendations to G20 leaders:
Theme 1: GROWTH
Topic 1 - Youth Employment and Empowerment
1) G20 and G8 host nations should provide an opportunity for the communiqué of the Y20 and Y8+ summits to be represented at the respective G Summit, so that a youth voice can be heard.
2) We call for a special committee within the G20 to be established to: a) Propose a policy framework aimed at creating favourable economic conditions for youth employment and b) Review future G20 decisions and policies for their possible impact on youth employment.
3) The G20 should support the development of volunteering and youth exchanges across the world, helping young people from the G20 nations to gain selfconfidence, develop a more global outlook, and become more employable in the long run.
4) The G20 should encourage companies to publish in their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Reports how they are supporting and training under 30s, to put moral pressure on the importance of supporting young people in a recessionary environment.
5) The G20 should encourage labour market efficiency to facilitate the labour mobility, whilst ensuring consideration of: a) An early notice of dismissal, b) A wages guarantee fund and c) The creation of agencies to support job-seeking unemployed individuals.
6) The G20 should endorse a policy of supporting youth employment, through tax incentives for inexperienced entry-level work and youth hires, specifically for the first year of work in a person’s lifetime.
7) The G20 calls for the implementation of dual education schemes in order to increase the role of the private sector in the development and financing of education, to minimise the current skills gap between existing and needed skills for employment.
8) The G20 strive to incentivise youth entrepreneurship, since it empowers young people to hire other young people and reduce youth unemployment through: a) A combination of direct state loans and soft loans and b) Greater entrepreneurial mobility through international start-up programs such as a start-up visa program facilitated by regional economic groupings.
9) The Y8+ seeks to encourage the introduction of a system similar to Erasmus, but on a global scale, through the tripartite cooperation of universities, companies and governments by: a) Financing a comprehensive program especially in vocational training involving both the public and private sector and b) Implementing a youth-retirees expertise exchange and mentorship that allows retired people to provide young people worldwide with education using technology.
10) The Y8+ supports the fair compensation for interns, in either payment or education, to encourage young people to seek work experience.
11) The G20 should encourage lower interest rates on student state loans matching inflation rates and administration costs, to decrease the costs of seeking an education for young people.
Topic 2 - Promotion of Sustainable, Responsible World Trade
1) To deepen bilateral and regional trade agreements in aspiration to formulate inclusive cross-regional frameworks in the future, and encourage the strengthening of regional and trans-regional economic partnerships, such as in the Asian and African regions.
2) To support the digitisation of product marketing to enable customer choice in consumable products and encourage transparency; product-quality global standards should be introduced.
3) For the gradual diminishment of fossil fuel subsidies to reach 50% of CO2 emission reduction required to keep global warming within 2 degrees Celsius, and create equal and sustainable international trade, in light of the failure of the G20 plan to phase out fossil fuels subsidies agreed in 2008.
4) To avoid protectionism as a response to the global economic and financial crisis, the G20 should pursue greater equality between its members so the interests of developing countries are accounted for.
5) To create an advisory committee on the reduction of agricultural trade barriers within the WTO, with a strong regional emphasis, to improve the productivity and efficiency of agricultural industries. The advisory committee should also make recommendations on agricultural subsidies and innovations.
6) To support direct youth action towards sharing knowledge and technology in the agricultural field, and a regional digital platform to give young people a greater cross-country understanding of the economic and social needs and strengths of other countries, increasing agricultural productivity and innovation.
Topic 3 - Empowerment in the Post-2015 Development Agenda
Prior to developing post-2015 goals, the failure of previous development goals must be recognised and understood in order to plan effectively for the next round of development goals.
Key failures include addressing: a) Vulnerable employment and working conditions, b) Maternal deaths and maternal health, c) Access to clean water, d) Hunger and food insecurity and e) People living in extreme poverty and slums.
1) Our recommendations moving forward to the post-2015 development rounds should all be set with a target date, and include a specific series of target milestones for gradual improvement over smaller time frames, and aim for regular review and assessment of performance.
2) The G20 should affirm that the post-2015 development agenda must include climate change alleviation and sustainable development, with an emphasis on rural and poor communities in developing countries that lack preventative and adaptive capacity to respond to climate change.
3) The Y8+ calls for gender to be mainstreamed as part of the post-2015 framework by: a) Developing gender sensitive targets and indicators for each agenda goal, b) Ensuring that sex-disaggregated data is available as part of the process to empower women and address inequalities, c) Working towards the abolishment of patriarchal law, d) Focusing efforts on the following areas: maternal health; female political empowerment; economic empowerment, more access to education across primary, secondary and tertiary levels and e) Education on contraception and abstinence, family planning, recognising the need for collaboration with local religious and community leaders;
4) Eliminating income poverty of below US$1.25 per day income for an end target of 2025.
5) Ensuring that development goals take account of the need to improve civic participation and empowerment of people to exercise choice and control over decisions that impact their lives.
6) Development goals should support efforts for economic development and poverty reduction, in particular through Foreign Direct Investment and a focus on higher education, investing in human capital and building independent and sustainable societies.
7) End the “set it and forget it” aid strategies currently implemented by certain states, in particular by increasing transparency in the aid process, holding governments accountable for what kind of support they are providing. Increased transparency concerning funding and project performance should be encouraged and best practice shared, for instance by mandating that a list of all the organisations supplied with aid are listed on a publicly accessible website. This should be partnered with a detailed explanation of how these funds are being allocated and their objectives.
8) Encourage the G20 nations to utilise the Sustainability Development Index, regarding social, environmental and economic data, as recommended by the UN Sustainable Development Commission since 2002.
9) The G20 should advocate strong respect for human security, using a "bottom-up approach" to empower and protect people from violence, especially women and children in developing countries who are particularly vulnerable.
10) The G20 should support the development of access to Internet through computers and infrastructure, combined with the training in computer literacy
11) The G20 should support the development of an accountable and transparent governance policy framework in post-conflict states such as Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Somalia and Afghanistan. It is essential to establish new modes of interactions between the aforementioned nations and G20 nations.
12) The G20 should support investments in green technologies as a percentage of infrastructure development aid in the transfer of skills and technology.
13) The G20 should support the development of quality education in urban areas by focusing on the lack of qualified teachers and improving support for teachers.
Topic 4 – Financial Regulation and Combating Tax Havens
1) We express our strong support for the Loch Erne tax plan (2013 G8 in Lough Erne): “24. We welcome the OECD work on addressing Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) by multinational enterprises and emphasise the importance of the OECD developing an ambitious and comprehensive action plan for the Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors of the G20 in July.” to be implemented throughout the G20. The G20 should take a united front to stop the tax drain flowing out of countries where multinational corporations generate most of their revenue. 2) G20 should support a separation of investment and retail banking, providing greater security for citizen’s savings from the risks of investment banking.
3) G20 should support the obligation of company reporting to include International Integrated Reporting Committee standards for environmental and social capital.
4) Call for the G20 to develop a comprehensive tax reform agenda, whereby the profit-earning companies agree to pay a fair proportion of tax in those countries; complemented by a proportionate sanctions regime, for those nations with tax secrecy practices within the G20.
5) The G20 should push forward the timely and consistent implementation of Basel III and increase the role and resources of the Financial Stability Board.
6) The G20 should encourage the OECD to deliver an internationally accepted consistent definition of the distinction between tax evasion and tax avoidance.
7) The G20 should commit to better cooperation between the tax authorities of the G20 countries, including agreeing consistent data standards.
8) The G20 should encourage a greater focus on the IMF to monitor global financial dealings and to increase international transparency.
Theme 2: STABILITY, GLOBAL GOVERNANCE AND UNDERSTANDING
Topic 1 – Transparency in Governance
1) The G20 should seek to pressure all countries to have high quality and robust enforcement of the UN Convention Against Corruption in their national laws
2) The G20 nations should sign-up to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention, and support OECD states to impose sanctions on those countries that have signed up to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention, to curb corruption and foster open governance, but have not delivered on key requirements by the designated and agreed timeframe by the OECD; considering each country on a case-by-case basis.
3) The G20 should urge all multinationals corporations headquartered in their own jurisdiction to participate in the open government initiatives and to publish all royalties and taxes paid to all governments they transact with.
4) The Y8+ call for, across G20 nations as collective and as individual nations, a system of online public feedback on policies and policy makers, and strengthen whistle-blower regimes, in order to provide more accountability to officials and better protect against corruption.
5) The G20 should endeavour to take further steps towards better governance by:
a) Providing open access to information,
b) Improving data availability, quality, timeliness of basic data,
c) Increasing accountability in measuring process,
d) Implementing and enforcing anti-corruption legislation,
e) Publishing a guide on Mutual Legal Assistance from G20 countries and information on tracing assets in G20 jurisdictions.
6) Welcoming the U.S. government’s decision to review U.S. anti-money laundering rules with a view to correcting gaps, redundancies, or inefficiencies, the G20 should commit to supporting a similar exercise in combination with revision and enforcement of the role of Financial Action Task Force.
7) The G20 should commit to greater transparency in both the public and private sectors to achieve the objective of transparency and accountability in natural resource management in accordance with the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative.
8) The G20 should encourage the creation of national and international youth panels to operate within a UN Convention Against Corruption framework in order to encourage young people's awareness of the impacts of corruption on the effective functioning of their national governments.
9) G20 countries should provide an online space for public comment on official G20 documents.
10) We encourage dialogue as the way to find a peaceful and long-term solution to the issues around the Falklands/Malvinas Islands.
Topic 2 – Syria
2013 G8 Loch Erne statement on Syria:
“7. We strongly support the proposal for a conference to reach a political solution to the appalling conflict in Syria through full implementation of the 2012 Geneva Communiqué. We will contribute generously to the latest United Nations (UN) appeal for humanitarian help. We condemn in the strongest terms any use of chemical weapons and all human rights violations in Syria.”
1) The G20 should support the establishment of “safety corridors” within Syria for civilians and refugees. The UNSC approval should be sought to deliver this safety zone plan. These zones would be recognised by all parties and therefore neither side would engage in conflict in these zones. This would include an international peacekeeping force to be recruited by the United States and Russia for the protection of the safe corridors. The US and Russia would also coordinate humanitarian aid, as existing moderators in the conflict, for these safety corridors. The Arab League countries have a role in these processes. The safety corridors will be considered no-fly zones for unauthorised military aircraft. However, aerial vehicles can and should still be used for humanitarian purposes. Furthermore, the location of the safety corridors would be determined by the international peacekeeping coalition based on military feasibility and humanitarian concerns.
2) The G20 should strongly support the implementation of an immediate ceasefire and the distribution of humanitarian aid.
3) The G20 should publicly honour, and commit to further financially supporting, the enduring work of Turkey, Jordan, Iraq and Lebanon to support refugees from the Syrian conflict and provide humanitarian assistance.
4) The G20 should support a Donors Conference in the near future in order to have a budget ready to be used for the reconstruction of the country.
5) The G20 should encourage a peaceful dialogue between the rebel parties so that a concrete consensus can be reached as a step towards having the conference between them and the hostile forces to the rebels. This dialogue would be hosted by a neutral actor such as the UN, within the next month at the latest.
6) The G20 should call for all relevant Syrian parties and the states of the US, Russia, Turkey, Jordan, Iraq, Qatar, Iran and Saudi Arabia to attend the Geneva II conference in September, for a peaceful solution to the Syrian crisis - on the condition that Iran removes all military forces from Syria in a responsible manner.
7) The conference will need to incorporate a long term solution for the country. This solution should be facilitated by the UN, having all Syrian parties/ethnic groups central to the process.
8) The G20 should encourage Russia and the United States, and other nations facilitating weapons, to open a dialogue on the principles behind military contracts connected with both parties of the conflict.
9) The G20 should clearly support the importance of promoting democratic institutions in Syria and to have fair, independent and free elections as instrumental for government evolution, in cooperation with the UN with no preconditions for dialogue.
10) The Y8+ condemns the intervention of recognised terrorist groups in the conflict.
11) The G20 should endeavour to prevent the emergence of future terrorism, given the flow of weapons into the possession of various actors, for example by developing a weapon monitoring system and attempts made to recover weapons provided.
12) The UN should create a network that gathers the NGOs (both in Syria and outside) to determine the basic needs of the Syrian people and make it sure to transmit all the humanitarian aid to Syrian people.
Topic 3 –Post-Bretton Woods Global Governance Architecture
1) The IMF and World Bank should be continually reformed to better reflect the economic situation of the 21st century and the 14th General Quota review proposal approved by the Board of Governors for the IMF in 2010 should be endorsed. In order to promote an effective representation of the members of IMF and World Bank, we strongly suggest that the leadership of the organisations should be diversified to promote different perspectives on management.
2) The G20 should stress that without a comprehensive reform of the UN, the credibility and influence of the organisation will substantially decrease.
3) The UN Security Council should be reformed (to include; 2 African, 1 South American and 2 Asian member states) with one of the members being an "Arab country," alternately from the Asian or African blocs, with tenures of two years and no vetoes for the all new members, as well as introducing the possibility of re-election by the General Assembly for a maximum of three consecutive terms. Two permanent observers would be introduced, the AU and the EU.
4) The G20 should call for a more proportionate system of UN contributions based on GDP/population measures. A UN review should be commissioned to make recommendations on this.
5) The G8 should support the BRICS establishing a BRICS Development Bank in collaboration with international organisations to promote: a) International architecture reform and b) Joint use of facilities, technologies and knowledge.
6) The G20 should call for a closer cooperation between WB-BRICs Bank, and North-South and recommends sharing information and experience on development banks policy with other regional development banks (such as the Asian development bank).
Topic 4 – Strengthening and Institutionalising Cultural and Academic Exchange Recommendations:
1) The G20 should embrace the Global Exchange Initiative (GEI) to foster the peoples-to-peoples contacts on all various levels: a) Global system in the model of Erasmus, to strengthen and institutionalise multilateral academic exchanges for students and scholars between all participating G20 states, b) To be funded through a Multilateral fund (contributions measured by GDP) and c) Scholarships, travel costs covered by the multilateral fund.
2) The G20 advocates for professional exchange programs (employees of companies), including: a) Apprenticeships; b) Dual-Studies; c) Public sector; d) Private sector;
3) The G20 should aim to explore further mechanisms to facilitate multilateral exchanges for the non-profit sector, not only including NGOs, in particular through; a) Broadening and expanding Civil Society20 and b) Including artists, athletes and musicians.
4) The G20 strives to boost sustainable tourisms.
5) The G20 supports an inter-governmental secondment scheme to give young civil servants insights from delivering public services around the world. This should be delivered in tandem with the G8 drive to support youth exchange and volunteering.
6) The G20 countries adopt a new type of fellowship called the G20 Fellowship where: a) Each G20 participating country will accept Youth Fellows (between the age of 18 and 30) from each participating country to participate in community engagement within that country; b) Each of the hosting countries will be financially and logistically responsible for the fellows accepted in their country and c) The five members will choose among the categories of community involvement, which will include the environment, social services, entrepreneurship, health services and local empowerment.
7) The G20 should commit to greater government funding for youth led development and community engagement volunteering programmes.
The end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union were supposed to herald the end of history; the final triumph of Western liberal democracy over all other forms of government. A quick glance at the state of global affairs today proves that this assessment hasn’t been borne out.
The stalled Middle East Peace Process; the worsening humanitarian crisis in Syria; the Iranian nuclear programme; tensions on the Korean peninsula; new security challenges across the Sahel; the crisis in the Eurozone; and the growing threat from cyber attack. And these are just from a glance.
The world is more uncertain, and arguably more dangerous than ever before. It is undoubtedly more complex. The bipolar dynamic of the Cold War has given way to a geopolitical lattice-framework where political power, economic strength, and military might are more diffuse than at any time in recent history.
This presents tremendous opportunities for rising and resurgent countries, as well as more traditional centre’s of power, but it inevitably raises new challenges and further complicates long-running others. Some look at these as intractable or insurmountable problems; that it is better to accept the status quo than to confront them. That would be both naïve and dangerous.
As a group of young, dynamic, and passionate individuals, we recognise that we cannot address the full spectrum of global affairs in the window of time we have. Instead we focused our efforts on those arenas where we felt we could add most value and affect the greatest change.
To that end we addressed the urgent need for political stability in Libya and Mali, and tackled the desperate and worsening humanitarian crisis in Syria. Global affairs show little sign of simplifying or slowing down but we can at least try to tackle some of the most pressing challenges and help the world run a little safer.
Theme 1: POLITICAL STABILISATION
Topic 1: Libya
We recognise that Libya is undergoing significant democratic, political, economic and security reconstruction. The Libyan people and their government face significant challenges in their efforts to establish a peaceful, secure, and prosperous country. Foremost amongst these is the need to restore order and strengthen border security, particularly in the South, and develop the Libyan internal security apparatus.
Securitisation/ Security Reform Recommendations:
1) Pursuant to that goal we call for the introduction of new training programmes and the empowerment of local security forces at targeted, high volume checkpoints: a) Training should be specified to tackle transnational issues of human trafficking and arms control; b) We also call for the development of a joint intelligence program in collaboration with the African Union, Arab League, and Libyan government.
2) We recognise that one of the biggest problems facing the Libyan government is the large number of non-governmental armed groups who have repeatedly resisted attempts to disarm them, and undermine the prospects for long-term stability. To tackle this issue we call for: a) The re-integration of different militias, where appropriate, into restructured armed forces; b) A more economically viable situation for the Libyan armed forces, including improved salaries as a direct alternative to militias and; c) We support the recent ultimatum by the Libyan government of arms and munitions decommission by the end of 2013.
3) We also support the creation of a specialised unit for the identification and removal of unexploded munitions. This programme should include capacity building for local Libyan personnel in munitions identification and management, and is subject to review after 12 months with a view to non-Libyan personnel leaving the country when appropriate.
Economic Development Recommendations:
4) We recognise that the oil industry is a vital component of the Libyan economy but it faces significant challenges if it is to remain a viable source of government revenue and employment.
5) To help stabilise the industry and to ensure undisrupted operability we call for the strengthening of oil installations through increased security personnel and forces, to be coordinated jointly by the Libyan Government and African Union. Political Reconciliation and Electoral Reform Recommendations:
6) We support the government’s efforts to pursue a peace and reconciliation process and call for the establishment of a multilateral task force, in collaboration with Libyan legal officials, to develop the Libyan judicial and justice system. This process should: a) Emphasise the use of traditional and evidence-based processes; b) Pay particular attention to tribal and local considerations; c) Ensure that customary law, while supporting the intent of the post-2015 development goals, is taken into serious consideration, for example, through the use of local mobile courts.
7) To ensure that personal freedoms and liberty are upheld, we support the creation of a constitution that provides for freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and freedom of religion. The drafting of the constitution should make particular reference to values held in documents such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, to explore the possibility of establishing a Libyan bill of rights.
8) To strengthen democratic participation we encourage free and fair elections through electoral reform, community participation, and engagement of a plurality of political parties.
Topic 2 - Mali
We recognise that the current political instability and lack of security, particularly in the North, is contributing to a severe humanitarian crisis leading to thousands of displaced persons and a serious food shortage. It has also led to an increase in cross-border trafficking of humans, weapons and drugs. To ensure political stability in Mali, we recognise that it is important to meet basic human needs, encourage political reconciliation and strengthen the security infrastructure.
Internal Security Recommendations:
1) We encourage the strengthening of the Malian armed forces under the framework of the African Union and in collaboration with the United Nations Mission for the Stabilisation of Mali (MINUSMA). To enhance their capabilities we would provide the following assistance, such as, but not limited to: a) Force multiplier assets; b) Logistical support; c) Addressing equipment deficiencies; d) General support in counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency initiatives; e) Training assistance in collaboration with the European Union Training Mission (EUTM) leadership;
2) We support the recently reached ceasefire agreement and encourage further negotiations between the Malian government and the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA) leadership to arrive at a negotiated settlement that is permanent; Border Security / Regional Security Integration:
3) To enhance the strength of Mali’s regional and border security, we shall allocate security assistance to Mali’s regional neighbours, pursuant with AU framework provisions and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) defence and security commission, with the explicit purpose of tightening Mali’s border security;
4) We recognise that it is important to focus security assistance and border control on the North, particularly the Sahel, within the scope of the Sahel border security initiative.
Political Reconciliation and Electoral Reform Recommendations:
5) Considering the wide and diverse cultural and ethnic makeup of Mali’s population, we encourage the engagement of different cultural communities in the political process. It is important to emphasise that this participation should take place at local, regional, and national levels;
6) To enhance the legitimacy of the Malian political apparatus we agree to provide support in the upcoming Malian elections, and future elections, to ensure a free and fair process, including the possible provision of: a) Electronic voting; b) Biometric voter registration; c) Observer monitoring teams.
Human Security Recommendations:
7) As a consequence of the conflict in Mali, there is a severe humanitarian crisis. Many people, particularly those who have been displaced due to fighting, are denied basic human needs. Our efforts seek to ensure that protection and empowerment are available for all. To address this, we call for an intensification of aid to focus on direct and emergency food, water, and healthcare provisions, including direct food subsidies: a) This increased assistance shall be channelled through existing non-governmental organisations (NGOs), UN agencies, and multilateral bodies and will be coordinated with existing national and international programs already in place, such as, but not limited to, the World Food Programme (WFP); b) These short-term programs shall be subject to evaluative review twelve months after implementation with the goal of scaling down said projects, while continuing to support the goal of long term stability.
Food Security Recommendations:
8) The insufficient provision of food is a major impediment to long-term stability in Mali. To address this challenge we commit to facilitating the establishment of a 2- year Malian crop stability program with the following features / conditions: a) Explore crop diversity options; b) Targeted help to increase the yield of Malian staple crops, including: maize, rice, and wheat; c) Equip Malian farmers with additional skills and training; d) Facilitate the development of small-scale subsistence farming operations; e) Emphasise and encourage female empowerment in the agricultural sector;
9) To strengthen the Malian food security apparatus, we also agree to: a) Support the Malian security forces in providing both ground and river transportation security for swift and secure food distribution and access, with priority going to high-conflict areas; b) Ensure the program will work in conjunction with relevant government bodies to re-establish food transfer channels with regional partners, such as Algeria and other relevant trade partners; c) Support the reconstruction of central markets and distribution centres, including the Timbuktu and Gao regions, to facilitate the return of Arab merchants / vendors as well as disenfranchised Malian citizens.
Theme 2: HUMANITARIAN SUPPORT AND HUMAN RIGHTS
Topic 1 – Syria
The humanitarian crisis is gravely concerning and millions of people are in need of humanitarian assistance. Tens of thousands of people have been killed already and millions have been displaced from their homes or forced to leave the country. Human rights abuses occur on a regular basis and the spill over from the conflict threatens the stability of neighbouring countries and the broader region.
We condemn in the strongest possible terms the mass human rights violations and call for those responsible to be held accountable.
Chemical Weapons Recommendations:
1) We condemn in the strongest possible terms the use of chemical weapons in Syria by any party and call for those responsible to be held accountable.
2) We ask that a neutral, impartial, international observer team, assembled and authorised by the UN, is allowed to help secure and provide safe storage of all chemical weapons and material in Syria.
3) The UN Security Council will be made aware of all findings of chemical weapon use, whereupon they will be alerted, and will have the opportunity to decide how to act on the situation.
Improving Conditions of Refugee Camps Recommendations:
6) We recognise that the refugee situation in neighbouring countries is growing ever more complicated and we call for increased support in the following areas: a) Sexual violence and b) Reproductive health.
7) We support the increased provision of resources that focus on reproductive health, and provision of free access to specialised medical services, including: a) Safe spaces for women and children; b) Sexual health and self-protection information; c) Information on legal and human rights; d) Psychological support and counselling.
8) Access to education programs; we call on educational stakeholders to develop and provide comprehensive programs in the following areas: a) To support the mental health and wellbeing of children and young people living in refugee camps, including services focused on psychological adjustment, trauma and healing; b) Early learning skills and primary education including language training and mathematics; c) Vocational training to ensure Syrians have the skills to return to regular life in a stable country including basic medical and first aid skills and equipment and technical training.
9) An evaluative review should be conducted in 6 months regarding the necessity of enhancing this educational program. This should include the affected neighbouring countries and relevant educational stakeholders taking into consideration issues of cultural awareness, repatriation and reintegration;
10) Energy infrastructure: we call for a sufficiently resourced energy infrastructure through the use of energy generators and other means, to be sourced by the international community, focusing on: a) Improving sanitation; b) Night-time lighting for safety; c) Sufficient electricity for related services.
11) We recognise that the security of the infrastructure will fall to the border countries.
12) Public health provision where acute public health challenges exist in refugee camps, we support the enhanced provision of public health resources including: a) Maternity support and pregnancy care for safer birthing and minimising infant mortality; b) Hygiene kits and waste management materials; c) Access to clean water including temporary irrigation systems, purification and desalination kits; d) Disease awareness and recognition including contaminationrelated issues, waterborne diseases and Leishmaniasis programs; e) Mobile hospitals and emergency medical centre.
Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance Recommendations:
13) We recognise that the following values are critical to improving the coordination of humanitarian assistance: a) Information and knowledge exchange between NGOs; b) Transparency and good governance; c) Efficient structure for aid distribution; d) Supply chain management structure to enhance dispersion of aid; e) Synchronised funding practices from donor countries.
14) We recognise that it is important to ensure that the provision of aid is not misappropriated or abused by individuals or groups in order to destabilise Syria; 15) We call for a collaborative conference to be held within three months in order to: a) Identify and task the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) to be responsible for monitoring, reviewing, and evaluating efforts; b) Provide for a forum through which there may be dialogue between international and local NGOs, UN agencies, donor countries and neighbouring, affected countries; c) Welcome witness testimony from Syrian refugees to relevant stakeholders.
Supporting Neighbouring Countries Recommendations:
16) We encourage heightened priorities for national policing in relevant neighbouring countries to focus on: a) Preventing sexual violence; b) Guarding energy flows; c) Protecting food centres; d) Safeguarding water facilities; e) Ensuring the effective receipt of humanitarian assistance;
17) We call for international stakeholders to explore establishing new refugee centres in collaboration with neighbouring countries within the safety corridors as referenced above.
18) We propose that a collaborative intelligence initiative is established, which will be tasked with consolidating information sharing efforts with particular attention to: a) Crime rates; b) Inflow and outflow of refugees; c) Insurgent activities; d) Drug activities.
19) Joint intelligence centres should be established in proximity to refugee camps, at the discretion of the affected country.
Open Borders Recommendations:
20) We encourage the governments of Jordan, Turkey, Lebanon and Iraq to maintain open borders such that there may be a free flow of Syrian civilians, at the discretion of those countries.
Justice is the fundamental foundation upon which a moral and free society is created. The laws that govern our society stand for and seek to uphold truth and fairness. Not only are we obliged to uphold justice in our own societies and countries, we have a duty as moral citizens and lawmakers to ensure that justice prevails across the globe to ensure the protection of human rights for every individual, as well as protecting the national security interests of each nation, without giving one up for the other.
The Justice Panel at this Y8+ Summit in London seeks to represent and embody the youth voice on issues of international importance in relation to justice. By including recommendations on issues of Justice within the Final Communiqué, we hope to ensure that focus on the protection of Human Rights is at the centre of all negotiations and the policy making process, whilst simultaneously recognising that national security interests must be ensured legal protection.
The Justice Committee brings to the Y8+ Summit two themes of discussion. Theme 1 highlights the issue of legal protection of national security interests, particularly highlighting the issue of criminal activity relating to our national borders, land and cyber, as well as a focus of tackling government corruption.
Theme 2 emphasizes the commitment to support the global responsibility for the protection of human rights, both at home and abroad.
Theme 1: LEGAL PROTECTION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INTERESTS
Topic 1 – Cyber-Security
The Y8+ recognises that the rapid digitalisation of the world has created a borderless domain of activities in cyberspace, requiring the international community to articulate shared norms and expectations about conduct in cyberspace. Concurrently, the Y8+ believes that the freedom of expression and freedom of information are vitally important for human dignity and the development of modern societies. Although the Y8+ acknowledges the sovereignty of each state in determining its approach to regulating cyberspace, it is imperative that nations develop uniform standards that embrace the notions of free speech, expression and the flow of information. The Y8+ recommends that nations maintain a balance between domestic and international security interests and individual rights to privacy. For the purpose of determining accountability and prosecution, the Y8 recognises the difference between cyber activities committed by state and non-state actors.
We recommend that member countries pursue the following actions and goals in order to combat the issues related to cyber-security:
Freedom of Expression Recommendations:
1) The Y8+ firmly believes that governments should refrain from restricting or censoring public digital information unless the information: a) Is reasonably certain to lead to violations of international legal instruments such as, but not limited to the Rome Statute, Geneva Conventions, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR); b) Is reasonably certain to incite serious hatred which is likely to lead to violence as according to Article 20(2) of the ICCPR.
2) The Y8+ recognises that nations may be tended to use national security to justify otherwise unwarranted acts of restriction or censorship and accordingly urges these nations to embrace freedom of expression and information unless such information seriously threatens national security.
Right to Privacy Recommendations:
2) The Y8+ emphasises the need for transparency regarding the government’s distribution of private citizens’ information to external private actors.
14) Governmental, non-governmental organisations and private sector actors should not be required to transfer confidential information to external parties unless.
15) The person to whom that information pertains furnishes his consent.
16) Obtaining that information advances an important national security interest. 17) An international adjudication body holds that a nation within its jurisdiction should transfer that information.
18) When deemed appropriate, the person to which the transferred information pertains should be notified that an external party has requested/received that information.
19) The Y8+ encourages nations to support the work of INTERPOL and other existing national, regional and international organisations in its continuing efforts to mitigate cyber-crime and recommends that governments contribute resources to sustain and improve such efforts.
20) The Y8+ recommends that existing extradition agreements between countries expand the scope and identify the type of crimes for which a person may be extradited to include hostilities within cyberspace.
21) Encourages nations to cooperate through bilateral agreements in order to build national cyber capacities by sharing digital technologies and expertise, assisting in cultivating a digitally skilled workforce.
22) Recommends that the established norms regulating the use of force, pertaining to international conflict, include cyber acts that may: a) Cause severe damage to property or loss of life and b) Threaten international peace and security.
12) Member states are encouraged to address the issues of crime of aggression and right of self-defence as according to the UN Charter within the context of cyberattacks.
Topic 2 – Cross Border Crime (including Human Trafficking)
The Y8+ is extremely concerned over the development of serious crime with a crossborder dimension. We have notably identified organised crime in its most serious manifestations as a priority threat faced by its territory and population. Indeed, crime in the 21st century has gone global and criminal networks are nowadays forged across boundaries thus transcending national jurisdictions.
Transnational criminal activities threaten not only the development of emerging countries but also the stability of all States whether in the form of human trafficking, drug trafficking or money laundering. More generally, G20 States are affected by these issues that an international approach identifying the driving factors would help to tackle. Furthermore, comprehensive action plans should necessarily take into consideration the well-being of individuals fallen in to those organised criminal networks.
1) The Y8+ encourages member states to work with the United Nations Office of Drugs (UNODC) and Crime (“the Office”) with the assistance of INTERPOL to draft a report to establish a uniform identification to map an organised crime network used to identify common methodology to define cross border crimes and update existing legal frameworks.
2) States are encouraged to increase resources in rescue and recovery of victims of cross border crimes particularly in the case of human trafficking;
3) Nations are recommended to consider sanctioning public authorities as well as recruitment agencies who are proven to have participated in human trafficking;
4) We support the establishment and promotion of social and cultural campaign to tackle the problems associated with cross-border crime. Such programmes ought to work with existing national and international governmental bodies and NGOs with UNODC acting as a high level co-ordinator.
5) We recognise that these illicit trades are dominated by younger people and thus encourage countries to prioritise protecting the younger generation focusing on kidnapping, youth labour and prostitution with respect to the black market.
6) The Y8+ stresses that nations should work increasingly closely with the hotel and transport industry to enhance its knowledge of human trafficking and provide its staff with the tools needed to identify victims of trafficking in order to trigger an intervention.
7) Continue to deter and disrupt the use of false documentation and identities by working with airlines and other transport services, strengthening checks on visa applicants, using appropriate biometric information, and working with overseas law enforcement and international partners to share information.
8) Establish shelters for victims of human trafficking to ensure they have access to justice, adequate health, claim of compensation and support for employment.
9) Recommends the monitoring employment practice to eliminate debt bondage, due to its use as a force of coercion into the trafficking industry.
10) Strengthen existing legal framework to assist enforcement agencies to tackle organised crime.
11) Countries commit themselves to criminalise transplantation of organs of which the origin is unclear which would be reported by an international task force of health/medical experts with expertise in the identification process of organ donation.
12) Adaptation of laws which better reflect the international legal obligations of the signatories of the Declaration of Istanbul on Organ Trafficking and Transplant
13) Encourages nations to recognise organ trafficking, including human cells and tissues, as an independent crime from trafficking persons.
14) Recommends nations to incorporate the poaching of animals, and the illegal trading of animal products to be considered as part of the black market and
organised crime. As such, it should be tackled as equivalent to drug smuggling.
15) We condemn the serious cross border crime, notably the systematic abduction and kidnapping by a state of foreign nationals, and emphasises that such states must address these issues and cooperate fully with all relevant UN mechanisms.
Topic 3 – Corruption
The Y8+ regrets the spread of corruption affecting all states in all sectors and all levels of society that subsequently undermines the trust of the civil society. We reaffirm our adherence and support to good governance practices and initiatives as well as its endorsement of the two-pronged approach consisting of enhancing transparency and accountability. We further appreciate that the rule of law represents an effective instrument of good governance. Indeed, a clear legal and regulatory system and framework supported by mechanisms for accountability and transparency will bolster policy performance, foster trust in public institutions and create a positive business climate that will in turn spur inclusive economic development.
1) The Y8+ encourages all nations to enact domestic legislation to effectuate principles articulated in existing treaties governing conduct in the following areas:
c. Organised crime and
d. Trade and other practices.
2) Nations are encouraged to promote rules and implementation to prevent money laundering, tax evasion, and aggressive avoidance such as tax havens and practices while enabling governments to collect taxes where they are owed and establish ownership.
3) Recommends that governments tackle corruption from within, in order to combat internal corruption, to strengthen checks and balances on government officials and agencies.
4) Advocates governments to increase transparency of monetary flows in order promote the oversight of government budget distribution.
5) The Y8+ encourages nations to develop legal processes wherein an autonomous, domestic adjudicating body can review exposed corrupt practices by whistle-blowers in camera to mitigate the national security threat of public exposure.
6) The Y8+ condemns whistle-blowers that undermine national security while ensuring support is given to those that reveal information to private courts instead of the public media in order to prevent putting the general population under threat.
7) We stress that where the public interest in disclosing corrupt practices outweighs the national security cost in doing so, whistle-blowers should be given incentives to alert the media to the full extent of the corrupt practices.
8) Encourages nations to develop incentives for government insiders to expose corrupt practices to in camera courts that enjoy judicial autonomy.
Theme 2: GLOBAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
Topic 1 – Prisoner Rights
The Y8+ encourages all nations to codify certain privileges, rights and immunities for detainees or prisoners and develop a process of accountability to ensure that governments execute these international obligations. The Y8+ sees it as paramount that all nations comply with existing norms, international obligations and laws regarding the treatment of detainees and prisoners. In particular, the Y8+ urges that domestic criminal justice systems embrace the importance of a fair trial and apply substantive and procedural due process before convicting and sentencing the accused.
1) The Y8+ affirms that the right to vote is a universal fundamental human right that is crucial to the expression of human dignity and to the democratic political process. When a person is convicted under due process of law, he sacrifices certain rights enjoyed by all other law abiding citizens. However, in certain cases, the right to vote, due to its tremendous import, should be preserved.
2) The Y8+ therefore urges nations to consider preserving the right to vote for prisoners for certain classes of crimes as determined by the nation’s courts or legislative bodies.
3) The Y8+ urges nations to guarantee, through their departments of corrections or other relevant agencies, a basic level of health care and treatment for all prisoners without discrimination pursuant to the UN Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners.
4) The Y8+ should support an international structure like the Subcommittee on the Prevention of Torture of the Office of the High Commissioner for Humanitarian Rights (OHCHR) that, by means of visits or inspections, examines the treatment of persons deprived of their liberty.
5) The Y8+ should commit to ratify and transpose relevant international HR instruments into national legislation and policies.
6) The Y8+ urges non-signatories to ratify the Convention against Torture and the Optional Protocol.
7) The Y8+ affirms Article 5 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, protecting prisoners from torture and cruel and unusual punishment.
8) Because the Y8+ observes that many prison authorities lack sufficient training on how to treat prisoners without abridging their fundamental rights, we recommend that nations provide relevant training to prison officials, security personnel, and border control authorities.
9) The Y8+ believes that an external monitoring mechanism should be implemented, in collaboration, with the International Committee of the Red Cross and the Red Crescent Movement, which independently assesses the conditions in prisons while accounting for specific needs of the population both in terms of the region’s economy and culture.
10) Moreover, nations should bolster their existing commitments to report regularly and transparently to the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crimes on conditions in prisons and on prison welfare within the country.
11) The Y8+ urges nations to rehabilitate prisoners and facilitate the transition from prison into society
Topic 2 – Gender Equality
1) The Y8+ condemns in the strongest terms all types of discriminations based on gender. We firmly believe that social exclusion and gender inequality are unacceptable in today’s societies and should be tackled by effective and efficient means.
2) Creating a legal level playing field is also unavoidable in helping to tackle gender inequalities. We observe that introducing and promoting a political and/or economic dimension to actions calling for equal treatment and equal opportunities yield concrete improvements.
3) We strongly recommend that nations consider enhanced punishments for gender-related crimes, especially rape by relatives and spouses.
4) National strategies for protecting women should focus on prevention, such as identifying the vulnerable, as well as improving acceptance of evidence, legal security, and supporting victims in testifying against their attackers.
5) The Y8+ urges countries to consider revising land laws, ownership rules and inheritance laws to maximise gender equality and minimise gender-based threats. 6) The Y8+ believes nations should review and reform marriage and family laws as part of an examination of personal laws and should further harmonise religious practices and customary practices under the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) framework.
7) The Y8+ strongly condemns gender-based violence and female genital mutilation and therefore supports initiatives, both existing and prospective, to eradicate these practices.
8) The Y8+ encourages countries to develop and implement a women’s human rights curriculum within their educational jurisdictions.
9) The Y8+ stresses the need to close gaps in entitlement in family related leave to ensure working towards a balance between maternity and paternity leave in order to ensure more fair representation of women in employment.
10) The Y8+ encourages the use of quotas to increase women's representation in policy related fields to allow for the creation of new policies to stimulate growth in gender equality in the private sector.
Topic 3 - Accountability and Prevention of Human Rights Violations
The Y8+ firmly renews its support and trust into the legitimacy and effectiveness of the International Criminal Court (ICC), a key instrument to help:
1) End impunity of those perpetrating gross violations of international human rights law and serious violations of International humanitarian law.
2) Restore the dignity of victims.
3) We call for all members of the international community to ratify the Rome statute and actively cooperate with the Court.
Topic 4 - Responsibility to Protect (R2P)
1) The Y8+, as a group of young leaders who have an interest in their world and in the peace of stability of the region, believes that the international community has a responsibility to protect endangered populations around the world entrenched in armed conflict zones.
2) We urge the UN and other concerned parties to elaborate legal frameworks addressing the concept of Responsibility to Protect, with regard to its scope and effectiveness in accordance with Chapter 7 of the UN Charter.
There stands an unfortunate paradox around nuclear weapons in the 21st century; to seek them is to antagonise all around you, to have them is to ensure antagonism remains just that.
By looking at the country-specific examples of North Korean and Iranian nuclear ambitions, the Y8+ seeks to go further than case study pertinent examples of the failure of current non-proliferation measures. Instead, we seek to provide platforms upon which to present assertions of what new, innovative and dynamic global nonproliferation policy could look like. Which brings us to the final topic to be discussed under the banner of Non-Proliferations, that of disarmament. The Y8 Defence panel will seize the opportunity and seek to answer that most fundamental of all defence questions.
The 21st Century has brought with it much advancement in technology, which has led to leaps in medical, travel and communications capabilities. However, it has also brought with it complex and new security issues that previous security paradigms are unable to adequately explain.
The growing role of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, or Drones, is unchartered territory. The Y8+ seeks to address the pertinent question surrounding the use of drones. Drones are the most immediate example of how mankind needs to regulate new technology.
Despite the obviously central role new technology plays in contemporary security debate, classic threats, such as that from piracy and small arms and light weapons, still breach the peace for many. The foundations of many civil conflicts are the availability of small weapons and piracy too often a consequence of the societal disintegration that such hostilities leave in their wake. The continued instability that both problems bring makes them a hugely necessary security dilemma for the Y8+ Defence panel to focus on.
Theme 1: NON-PROLIFERATION
Topic 1 – Disarmament
The Defence Panel discussed the conflict between idealism and realism when seeking nuclear disarmament. The most logical, coherent and necessary policy recommendations had their grounding in hope over actuality, idealism before realism.
However, all were in agreement that to not embrace idealism is to do nothing, to accept a nuclear-armed world and turn our backs on a more peaceful future. Indeed, the panel was quick to cite the example of South Africa as a state that has voluntarily sought complete nuclear disarmament as an inspiration to the international community in this regard. In light of this, the Panel concluded that a new framework between the P-5 states aimed solely at nuclear disarmament was a fresh approach grounded in measurable achievement.
1) In accordance with the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), established nuclear powers are to come together in agreement on a new framework whose sole purpose is collective progressive nuclear disarmament.
2) With an understanding of mutual respect and state sovereignty, the Nuclear Disarmament Task Force recognises the leading role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regarding monitoring, and agrees to negotiate bilaterally and multilaterally on matters of collective and progressive disarmament.
Topic 2 –Effectiveness of Current Non-Proliferation Measures (Sanctions)
The effectiveness of current non-proliferation measures have, without doubt, been largely successful. Indeed, the Non-Proliferation Treaty, while suffering violation, has been highly successful in preventing new states seeking nuclear arms. The panel was strong in its conviction that sanctions continue to be an effective measure to achieve non-proliferation.
However, within every community there are renegades who seek to push boundaries. The panel was strong in its conviction that these renegades are found in government buildings and not populations of those countries in question. As a direct consequence of this, the panel was certain of their conviction that future measures should be targeted at decision-makers.
1) To stress the targeting of sanctions at state decision makers, with as little detriment as practicable to populations, and to address sanctions to third parties colluding with states under sanctions.’
2) States are committed to refusing any form of financial interaction and transactions with entities and institutions involved with nuclear development for non-peaceful purposes.
Topic 3 – Iran
The panel was committed to a non-nuclear Iran and the return of Iran to the international community. The panel was certain that the arrival of a nuclear Iran would be to the detriment to both regional and global security. However, the panel felt a fresh and new response to was needed to break the stalemate currently evident in diplomatic attempts to end the nuclear stand-off with Iran. The panel was greatly enthused at the potential offered by the election and new president. As a result of this, the panel felt the time was opportune for a renaissance in relations with the Iranian government through regionally-led action.
1) While welcoming the possible opportunity presented by the recent Iranian elections the Y8+ remain gravely concerned and condemn Iran’s continued noncompliance with IAEA regulations and UN sanctions.
2) Regarding its nuclear program, the Y8+ suggests the introduction of regional dialogue featuring third party participation and mediation, with an understanding that a structured rollback of Iranian efforts to highly enrich uranium are key to the aim of achieving collective security in the region.
Topic 4 – North Korea
The panel was universal in its condemnation of the actions of the North Korean government. While the panel was strong in its demands for North Korea to return to the Six Party Talks, concerned were raised that the Kim regime would use this to buy further time. While unilateral action against the Korean regime was openly condemned, the panel discussed the notion of a ‘red line’ when military action, on a multilateral basis, would be a possibility. However, the panel retained an optimism that the promise of economic assistance and the normalisation of diplomatic relations could help bring North Korea back to the table and into the international community.
The Japanese delegate was extremely concerned about the refugee situation created by instability and the abductions attributed to the North Korean regime. As a result of this, the Chair ensured that the Japanese delegate had an audience with the Chair of the Justice panel, where her concerns were better placed.
1) Concerned by the challenge to the international peace and security situation posed by the destabilisation of the situation in the Korean Peninsula, and continuing violation of the international law by Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK), the Y8+ strongly supports the return of North Korea to the Six Party Talks.
2) We encourage elaborating a coordinated approach among China, the United States, South Korea, Japan and Russia. This is also applied to any bilateral relations between any of the above parties and the DPRK.
3) Concerned by humanitarian situation in the DPRK, the Y8+ strongly supports linking the normalisation of economic and diplomatic ties with the DPRK to the denuclearisation of the Korean Peninsula.
4) The Y8+ strongly supports the continuation of multilateral sanctions against the DPRK. In accordance with previous recommendations of the defence panel, we recommend sanctions be levied against parties who facilitate or collude with the current regime in its nuclear weapons ambitions.
Theme 2: PRE-EMPTIVE AND PREVENTIVE SECURITY POLICY
Topic 1 – Trade in Small Arms Light Weapons
Discussion across this topic was varied. The importance of sovereign rights, as well as individual rights to possess firearms, were regarding as important to protect in any recommendations that came from discussion. However, the panel was quick to suggest that the proliferation of small arms and light weapons was a contributing factor to many civil conflicts and unrest in developing states. The panel was heartened by the agreement of the Arms Trade treaty and was committed to furthering the reach of it.
1) The Y8+ urges increased measures to combat international counterfeiting to restrict flows of currency to hostile actors as an important measure in fighting the trade of small arms and light weapons.
2) While the Y8+ commends the progress made by the Arms Trade Treaty negotiations regarding small arms trade, it welcomes further discussion regarding delineations of the scope and parameters of the treaty to account for relevant laws of members of the international community.
3) Recognises the fundamental importance of global consistency and best practices, yet acknowledges regional differences in arms trade patterns.
4) Supports activities of the UN Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons, and further suggests peer-review initiatives in all aspects related to regulating illicit arms trade.
5) Encourages states vulnerable to conflict and strife to engage in semi-regular periods of arm amnesty as to discourage the possession of illicit arms and ammunitions by civilians, to be executed at the State level.
6) Suggests free trade agreements and Generalised System of Preferences mechanisms be contingent on proven efforts by recipient States in restricting and monitoring arms trade within but mainly across borders.
7) Calls for the provision of supplemental information regarding potential changes in end-users related to legitimate arms trade in export controls data gathering.
8) Stresses the importance of the Review on the UN Register of Conventional Arms currently being undertaken at UN-level in Geneva.
Topic 2 – Managing New Technologies in Security, Protecting Humanity from Itself
The panel partook in a heated discussion regarding cyber-crime, drones and lasers. However, out of deference to our colleagues on the Justice panel, we decided to negotiate on the subject of drones instead of cybercrime, which our Justice colleagues had negotiated in detail. The most heated point to note was around the possibility of automatic drones. While this technology is not yet available, many in the room felt uncomfortable with the prospect of their development.
Equally, the panel felt uncomfortable in recommendations that would seek to limit what drone technology they could have or not have in the future. As a direct consequence of this, agreement was reached on the final two paragraphs of the recommendation section. Each section represents the conflicting views. While the parties concerned would not agree on either wording, they would not disagree on either; the inclusion of both was at the Chair’s discretion with a view to offering choice to the Heads of State.
1) The Defence Panel welcomes the enquiry by the UN Special rapporteur on counterterrorism and human rights into the existing use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and encourages consistent reporting from all parties.
2) The panel recognises the problem of diverging interpretations of the use of UAVs of the legality under International public law.
3) The panel acknowledges the repercussions that present practices might have on the future use of drones regarding international customary law.
4) We encourage a discussion on a framework for the use of UAVs by G20 member states that would bring together individual national policies, past international enquiries into UAVs such as, but not limited to the aforementioned UN inquiry, and relevant international agreements.
5) The Y8+ is cognisant of the inherent contradiction between the goal of transparency and the necessary covert nature of many military uses of UAVs.
6) As part of the aforementioned framework, recognising the progress and precision technological research can provide on the matter, yet in light of maintaining a sense of consciousness related to the humanity of civilian lives, the Y8+ recommends thorough discourse regarding the potential development and consequences of automated systems in armed drones, whose purpose consists of direct human casualties.
Topic 4 –Piracy
The panel was in consensus about the serious nature of piracy and its detrimental effect on the safety of our waters. The panel discussed the humanitarian and economic root causes of piracy and the necessity to work with development agencies as an important element of fighting piracy. The panel discussed assertive solutions to piracy including the development of different routes for trade and the role of sea-based industries in supporting international efforts to end piracy. The UN Convention of the Sea was discussed as one possible vehicle for legislating and coordinating international piracy efforts.
1) We support strategic assistance and resources to countries affected by piracy as a method of prevention.
2) Encourages nations affected by piracy to engage in international joint partnerships, where voluntary states aid in the monitoring and surveillance of targeted waters and host nation forces engage in quick deployment of national authorities to overcome limitations of prosecution in foreign waters by assisting states.
3) The Y8 encourages the institutionalisation of an international anti-piracy squadron with UN mandated participation of navies on an opt-in basis. This squadron would conduct joint training and information sharing, and would serve as a confidence building measure.
Our panel recommendations our founded in the following joint commitments: Reaffirming our will to meet Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. Reaffirming the necessity to reach the 0.7% ODA/GNI target. Having regards to the current reflections of the open working group on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We, the Y8+, recognise our shared responsibility to advocate for a human security approach for all, one that is people-cantered, multi-dimensional, interconnected and universal. We strive to promote self-empowerment with the suggestions in the following recommendations, with a specific focus on education and technology. It is our hope as the shared manifestation of our peoples’ voices that these recommendations will accelerate and sustain the creation of a brighter, healthier, and safer future for all.
Theme 1: EDUCATION
The Y8+ Summit Development Committee acknowledges the fundamental role that education plays in the ability of individuals and nations to pursue better living standards. The Y8+ recognises that the current global government does not have enough resources to satisfy the increasing demands of education. We strongly believe that the private sector can play a vital role in the development of education quality among differing nations.
By looking at the country-specific examples of Public Private Partnership (PPP), specifically in education, the Y8+ seeks to go beyond and recommends creating a new organisation that will foster growth in this regard. Furthermore, we strive to emulate the success of regional universities and their ability to connect distant and disparate communities and facilitate the exchange of knowledge. Lastly, recognising the capacity of the private sector to provide efficient solutions in the education sector, we call for the promotion and expansion of social enterprises to check the pursuit of profits and maximise positive social impact.
As a committee, we suggest new ways to tackle those global issues which involve primarily technological innovations and global partnerships involving the private sector.
Topic 1 - Education Excellence Assessment Alliance (EEAA)
1) The Y8+ believes that collaboration among sectors in education has proven successful and will help achieve current and future education goals. Finding process efficiencies, focusing on education outputs instead of inputs and supporting the establishment of Key Performance Indicators (“KPIs”) to track learning and reach targets in terms of literacy and numeracy are all benefits of PPPs. As such, the Y8+ recommends the creation of an international body to coordinate efforts to collect data and information on PPP best practices, to develop a framework of replicable and adaptable KPIs and fiscal incentives to better improve the delivery of education by the private sector.
2) We recommend the body to be called Education Excellence Assessment Alliance (EEAA) and to be created in 2013; the body shall be modelled on Alliance for Financial Inclusion, a poly-lateral development institution that has multiple stakeholders, such as ministers, NGO and private sector representatives from both developed and developing communities. The alliance would be a convergent value chain, ultimately increasing transparency levels among key stakeholders. We suggest that EEAA members meet at regular intervals to assess and determine which PPP in education experiences are most appropriate for the member stakeholders.
3) We foresee that the EEAA be tasked with creating an evidence-based and accredited online database of international best practices and actionable KPIs in PPP education. This portal can be accessed by member countries looking to institute their own PPPs in education to identify potential past successes and KPIs relevant to their specific requirements. Based on this initial identification of possible PPP structures, EEAA will cooperate with the member country to issue a call for bids in order to select both a private party who will deliver the education services and a non-profit party that would monitor the private party’s compliance with the agreed upon KPIs.
4) Furthermore, to increase private sector participation, we support that this organisation liaise with the member country to recommend effective incentives linked to outputs and achievement of KPIs. These incentives will be tiered and proportionally linked to the progress that has been made on KPIs with their respective partnerships. Tax and other government incentives (e.g., granting land, building infrastructure, etc.) shall also be considered by EEAA.
5) We propose that this alliance be created so as to share international experience, increase collaboration and recognition the potential role of the private sector in the delivery of effective and sustainable education solutions.
Topic 2 - International Teaching Alliance: RegionalU
1) The Y8+ recognises the extreme importance of multinational educational partnerships in facilitating global understanding, sharing best practices in education, and bringing high-quality education to underserved populations.
2) The Y8+ calls for all countries to advocate for the creation of international teaching alliances in the form of the Canadian-led, but since international, University of the Arctic through a model and methodology called RegionalU.
3) UofArctic is an international cooperative network based in the circumpolar region, consisting of universities, colleges, and other organisations (e.g. research and indigenous organisations) with an interest in promoting education and research in the far north. UofArctic’s partner membership includes 34 from Canada, 7 from Denmark/Greenland, 9 from Finland, 6 From Iceland, 17 from Norway, 46 from Russia, 7 from Sweden, 11 from the United States, and 1 from the United Kingdom. The network is both real world and digital, with partners agreeing to exchange students, faculty, and information both online and physically.
4) Y8+ sees the RegionalU model being successful in creating transnational partnerships to educate populations in other parts of the world, with a strong focus on online education. For instance, currently under-served regions like the Sahel could be served by a “University of the Sahel” that brings together African and European institutions, research groups, and communities to establish distance education and research forums in an under-served region. The structure of this network allows for educational approaches that are sensitive to regional needs, for instance vocational and technical skills and approaches.
5) Furthermore, RegionalU activities are not solely limited to online distance-based education, but also those that encourage multinational scholarship and stimulate research and scholastic activity in understudied region.
6) The RegionalU model relies on the shared responsibility of partners in establishing the technological infrastructure necessary to conduct activities. This process will be context-specific, but may include the establishment of rural internet hotspots and physical exchange of technology between partners.
7) Y8+ supports the creation of a grant that could be accessed by interested universities to incentivise their participation in developing these networks. This grant would be funded at least initially by Y8+ countries and a competition process managed by UNESCO and the UNDP would determine which proposals receive funding.
8) In recognition of the fact that global trends are bringing regions and countries closer together politically and culturally, the standardisation of educational practices through transnational consortiums is both timely and cognisant of current and future international realities. The model of the University of the Arctic could be replicated through an assessment of best practices provided to interested partners in conjunction with start-up funds. The ultimate goal of RegionalU is to make quality education accessible to all, especially under-served populations in developing communities.
Topic 3 - Social Enterprise Facilitation
1) The Y8+ calls for a global paradigm shift encouraging the teaching of social enterprise in school curriculums to develop entrepreneurial skills and emphasise the importance of its implementation.
2) We recognise the extreme importance of the notions of entrepreneurship in economic stimulation, upwards mobility and community development for all individuals globally.
3) We are also convinced that youth should be the primary target for entrepreneurial and business-skills education and that simply encouraging alternative perspectives on employment creation is inherently valuable.
4) We urge not only theoretical learning, but practical applications contextualised on local contexts and responsive to community needs.
5) We will strive for the establishment of a working group in 2013 composed of willing nations facilitated by UNESCO and the World Bank Group to advise local universities and tertiary education on how these values may be taught and incorporated into existing curriculum.
Theme 2: TECHNOLOGY
We recognise technology adoption and implementation as an effective means to empower individuals and address global issues. We urge the adoption of the Y8+ Global Technology Strategy (GTS) to effectively achieve these goals.
The GTS pursues solutions that are contextualised, locally sourced, and focuses on both individual empowerment and community development internationally. These strategies further the international development agenda by working to achieve the MDGs and build upon the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and are reflective of rapid advancements in technology for development.
The three key themes of financial technology, microfinance, and citizen-based feedback form the backbone of the GTS and are themes the Y8+ is committed to incorporating in all elements of our development strategies.
As part of the GTS, the Y8+ will strive to adopt initiatives that promote the universal access to mobile phones and applications therein.
Our delegations are united in our support of individual liberty, balancing the governments need to access critical information with the concerns of privacy protection.
Topic 1 – Open Data Flow and Access to Information
1) The Y8+ supports investments in open data infrastructure by governments as it has the potential to improve transparency, but also accelerate progress in development. The data published by governments can be used by development organisations to overcome development challenges.
2) We support a call to ensure that government data is open, accessible, and easy to interpret. Open source data flow within PPP, which shows the details of government contracts with the private sector (the degree of information that is shared will be decided in consultation with the private sector and other involved stakeholders).
3) We advocate that data published online should be easily searchable. If the governments do not have the capacity to organise data effectively, it could be incentivised through crowd-sourced initiatives and pro-bono work from the private sector
4) The Y8+ countries will take charge of this initiative, building upon the Open Data Charter. Further, we will strive to ensure the initiative is adopted within the G20 by 2018.
Topic 2 – Grassroots Citizens Feedback
1) The Y8+ will strive to support initiatives that target country-led local level change, utilising the potential and reach of mobile technology to develop and implement frameworks to facilitate transparency and open government, working in partnership with local NGOs to ensure recommendations are locally relevant and culturally sensitive.
2) We advocate an accountability shift in the dynamics of relationships at a regional level, allowing greater scope for local agents to hold those above them responsible.
3) We call for the wider utilisation of mobile technology; open government organisations can receive direct feedback on government services. This initiative can be country-specific, which aids in accessing various programs with measurable evaluation.
4) As a result, we anticipate a catalytic effect on certain development outcomes. We commit to advocating for bottom up feedback and encouraging stakeholders to recognise their collective ability to affect change and exercise this influence.
5) We urge that each participating country selects a priority theme (e.g.: health, education, infrastructure) on which to focus the development and maintenance of user-feedback systems. The committee cautions that this proposal must be assessed on a local level, as the feedback loop may not be as effective in a non developed context on the grounds of less education, exposure to government, and existing power structures. We advocate for the coordination of this project to be undertaken by a consortium of interested governments, multilateral institutions, and the United Nations.
Topic 3 - Financial Technology & Microfinance Recommendations
1) The Y8+ calls for the adoption of a financial delivery system that reduces transaction cost in aid delivery and cost reduction within pre-existing organisations in their provision of microfinance and other financial services and benefits.
2) We propose the adoption of an electronic benefit payment system. The system is cost-effective for donors, while improving the speed of aid delivery and transparency as a direct donor-to-recipient transfer that reduces corruption and inefficiency.
3) In conjunction, we advocate for the creation of a personal online profile system that displays the committed amount, type, and received benefits per individual, while informing of the aid source. The system would allow for user feedback on aid quality and quantity, provide monitoring abilities and data collection on the effectiveness of received assistance. We recommend that this platform be incorporated into existing mobile banking technology.
4) We recognise concerns in data security, fraud prevention, reduction of costs in international transactions and we recommend taking all measures necessary in ensuring the security of these systems.
5) We support the increased penetration of mobile phone based money transfer services (e.g., M-pesa) in the global establishment of mobile systems of money transfer, specifically through encouraging government and financial sector cooperation to create regulatory frameworks that ensure security. Furthermore, we encourage the reform of government requirements in implementing mobile payment services to encourage widespread adoption and increasing access to financial systems among the unbanked.
6) Specifically in microfinance, we advocate for increasing credit accessibility to smaller companies and lowering interest rates (empowering individuals, communities and the private sector) It should be the dual responsibility of the World Bank Group and the World Trade Organisation, respectful of their individual mandates, to work in conjunction with the government and private sector to promote and regulate the microfinance sector. These groups should put regulations into place that work to protect users of microfinance from fraud, especially in a developing country settings.
7) We promote private and state-owned firms to adopt a focus on microfinance in developing a corporate social responsibility strategy that supports hubs of innovation in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs).
8) It is our hope that we engender relationships that lead to long-term responsibility, mentorship through local training, teaching, and education on microfinance and topics of interest therein.
9) We also seek to develop a technology platform that can compile the data of the SMEs, including annual profit reports to assess performance with the goal of opening doors to further capital, and publishing this information online to entice potential investors; hence, easing the transition from microfinance to banks. We are cognisant of understanding that microfinance is primarily synonymous with businesses; however a holistic approach sensitive to individual needs should also be pursued.
ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE
Most environmental issues cannot be adequately addressed unilaterally. As the complexity of some of these issues become clear, we realise that coordination and cooperation is essential. Our committee examined many international concerns under the broad themes of Resource Management, Energy, and Climate Change.
In particular, we focused much of our second day of negotiation on climate change. The occurrence of climate change and the contribution of anthropogenic factors have long been an established. We just reached a historical milestone with the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere reaching 400 parts per million (ppm) for the first time in human history, reiterating the importance of taking action on these issues.
Theme 1: RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Topic 1 – Land & Agriculture Sustainability
The twin problems of land scarcity and food security pose a significant problem for the international community. The Y8 believes that cooperation can help address both environmental concerns and provide more food for the world’s population. Thus during our discussions, we agreed on the following:
1) The G20 should strengthen international cooperation, especially between the developed and the developing world, in order to promote sustainable and climateresilient agriculture and to rehabilitate degraded environments.
2) This cooperation will be based on a country-driven approach and will consist in sharing best practices, developing short-circuits, supporting small-scale, indigenous and local agriculture. The programme will also support agricultural entrepreneurship and the integration of youth in sustainable agricultural practices.
3) Support will be provided through the establishment of an international fund to financially assist small-scale farmers in the transition from conventional to sustainable agriculture practices.
4) In addition, the Y8+ encourages countries to strengthen initiatives aimed at minimising ecosystem degradation.
5) The Y8+ agrees on the importance of conducting R&D to evaluate the environmental impacts of agricultural techniques, the effects of fertilisers and pesticides, and also to develop more sustainable production techniques. An international panel will be created to facilitate R&D initiatives.
6) The Y8+ acknowledges the need to educate consumers on sustainable food production and consumption. Therefore we stress the importance of higher transparency standards on the global food market. A need exists for increased transparency in the food supply chain with regards to the chemicals used to grow process and preserve food, as well as the amount of CO2 emissions emitted from the field to the retailer. Moreover the Y8+ recommends that this information be available to the public.
7) We stress the need to significantly reduce global food waste and, therefore, agree on launching a “zero Food Waste Initiative”, in line with the “Think, Eat, Save” campaign. The purpose of this initiative is to significantly reduce the amount of waste produced throughout the entire food supply chain. The goals and directives by an international panel whose members will come from both developing and developed countries.
8) In accordance with the Zero Food Waste Initiative, the Y8+ strongly discourages supermarkets’ cosmetic standards for fresh products such as fruits and vegetables.
Topic 2 – Deforestation Prevention
The Y8+ recognises the value of forests and their role in the global ecosystem as key to mitigating climate change, capturing CO2 emissions and preserving biodiversity. Forests are a common good that should be protected, therefore we recommend the following:
1) The Y8+ recognises the value of forests and their role in the global ecosystem as key to mitigating climate change, capturing CO2 emissions and preserving biodiversity. Forests are a common good that should be protected; therefore we strongly encourage the creation of a legally binding international agreement on deforestation practices monitoring and the sharing of best practice.
2) In addition, the Y8+ would like to encourage the reduction of the use of wood, increase the traceability of wood logging, encourage the regulation of burning of forest waste and incentivise sustainable forestry in the private sector. The Y8+ also recognises the important role of NGOs in the reforestation process.
3) In order to overcome the difficulties occurred at the last climate negotiations in Doha (COP18), an agreement could be found as follows: countries supported by the UN-REDD and REDD+ programmes to accept verification of emission reductions from forests from external countries, but also to take advantage of non-carbon benefits. The Y8+ emphasises the need to reinforce and foster greater transparency of the implementation of climate financial mechanisms such as REDD and REDD+.
4) The Y8+ is committed to support knowledge transfer between developing and developed countries and encourages bilateral agreements. By using the Green Climate Fund and others the Y8+ would like to finance incentivising programs to provide the necessary capital to conduct R&D, as well as to support local communities to preserve their forests. We would like to see a recommitment to financing this specific fund.
Topic 3 – Water Management
Water is essential for life and a basic human need. A growing world population relies heavily on it for use in everyday activities in the home while at the same time it is essential for commerce and industry, for the generation of electricity, and for agricultural practices.
1) The Y8+ recognises that water is a precious resource that needs to be both conserved and protected. We must ensure that all people enjoy the right to safe, drinkable water regardless of their country of origin. We must also include water in any discussions of sustainability and make sure that countries, cities and individuals do their utmost to reuse and recycle water resources.
2) The Y8+ would like to see stronger regulations to protect the natural resources of drinkable water and would like to recommend setting standards regarding treatment and management of waste water and the development of communityoriented water management frameworks. Such standards should encourage the appropriate pricing of large-scale agricultural and industrial usage of water.
3) Besides setting targets, the Y8+ encourages the extension of research and technology in this field, fostering technology transfer with a special focus on improving water infrastructure and strengthening of irrigation management transfer programs. In addition, it is suggested by the Y8, that dry sanitation systems replace wet sanitation systems where appropriate.
4) Finally, the Y8+ would like to express its commitment towards educating citizens on issues around water and its appropriate usage. In building the youth capacity and creativity, the Y8 supports “Watertainment” programs (World Water Forum).
Topic 4 – Clean Air Initiative
Air quality is important to ensure the health of citizens and prevent airborne diseases. Monitoring of pollutant emissions and providing this data to the general public can create awareness and incite actions for improved air quality. The major concern is the transport sector and there is the recognition that current systems are inefficient and these systems need to be further developed.
1) The Y8+ strives to minimise global air pollution. Industries have a considerable impact on air quality. As a result, we set a directive to establish a mandatory reporting initiative, which will be handled on a national basis. Industries should report their emissions to their governments, including GHG emissions, fine particles, and any chemicals recognised as dangerous released into the atmosphere. Therefore, the Y8 stresses the importance of increasing the transparency of the industrial sector regarding their environmental impact. On a national level, we encourage the reduction of subsidies to industries that are air polluting.
2) The Y8+ recognises the important role public transport plays in the debate around clean air. It would therefore like to see further research and investment into cleaner forms of transportation. Furthermore, it would like to see regional cooperation in scientific research and increase the intensive bilateral partnerships on clean air technology. In order for this research to be implemented the Y8 countries recognise the need to improve and maintain better systems of public transportation, especially in Africa.
3) In addition to research, the Y8+ would like to encourage major cities to adopt a congestion tax. Furthermore, countries are urged to reduce the amount of particles released into the air by power plants, by using the appropriate scientific methods available. Lastly, the Y8+ would encourage countries to increase the availability of information of air pollution in cities to their citizens.
Topic 5 – Marine Security
Marine security is an emerging issue that concerns the future of natural sea resources, human security, and national defence. The trans-boundary nature of marine domain cannot be managed by a single authority. Therefore, the Y8+ has agreed on the following:
1) The Y8+ recognises that overfishing and illegal, unregulated and unreported fishing practices pose a serious threat to marine security, long-term fish stocks and national sovereignty. It is our recommendation that a multi-species approach to fisheries management be adopted as this will facilitate long term sustainable fish stocks and improve ecosystem function.
2) With regard to IUU fishing practices, the Y8+ also recommends that the exclusive economic zones of countries be more strictly monitored and harsher penalties be implemented with the technological improvement at the national level. In order to protect our seas, we need to invest more in research in oceanclean up technologies and research concerning plastic alternatives made of renewable resources. Lastly, the expresses a desire to reduce the amount of plastic entering the oceans and the extension of protected marine areas at a national level.
Theme 2: CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION & ADAPTION (ENERGY)
Topic 1 - Climate Change Mitigation
Climate change impacts are increasing: CO2 concentration has reached the milestone of 400 ppm, global average temperature is getting higher, glaciers are melting, sea levels are rising. Consequently, extreme weather events are getting more intense and frequent, causing an increase in fatalities. Implementation of mitigation and adaptation measures, as well as new directives to further develop sustainable energies towards a carbon-zero scenario, are urgently needed.
In addition to coordinated action on fossil fuel subsidies, the Y8+ would like to see a legally binding international agreement adopted by all major emitters on cutting emissions by 2015 under the ADP that is consistent with limiting global temperature increases to 2°C. This agreement should give continuity to the CP2 and take into account the evolved global scenario, especially in terms of GHG emissions and countries’ development.
In order to fill the Emission Gap, the Y8+ encourages:
1) Countries who remained in the CP2 to raise their ambition levels, by replacing their “Quantified emission limitation or reduction commitment (2013-2020)” with their “Pledges for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2020”as in Annex B to the KP;
2) Countries who left or never joined the KP platform to reconsider their position or to submit national pledges for the period 2013-2020, in line with KP standards, basing upon principles that regulate emission pledges.
3) In these regards, the Y8+ welcomes the introduction of Intergenerational Equity as the main principle to be followed in the adoption of the new global agreement, included in the YOUNGOSubmission to the ADP by the YOUNGOMitigation Working Group, also recalling the principle of Common But Differentiated Responsibilities (CBDR) to reach a fair and ambitious agreement.
4) We stress the importance of increasing global transparency in all sectors pertaining to their environmental impacts including actual GHG emissions, water, energy and raw material consumption. As a result, we support the establishment of a mandatory reporting initiative, which will be handled on a national basis. Countries that request assistance in the reporting process will be aided by better equipped nations.
5) Non-reporting and inaccurately-reporting countries should have their energy products deemed carbon intensive until accurate information, as confirmed by the United Nations, is available.
6) We also encourage the UNFCCC to adopt official procedural rules, and to shift its decision making process from “consensus” to a “majority voting” system.
7) We also encourage the participation of R&D and scientific institutions, both public and private, to help reach global GHG emission goals.
8) Regarding the CDM programme, the Y8+ suggests that transparency be improved and stricter monitoring be implemented, that will reduce the risk of fraud and prevent carbon leakage and improper reporting of CERs (Certifiable Emission Reductions) and VERs (Verifiable Emission Reductions).
9) The Y8+ recognises that the use of low-carbon energy is not necessarily incompatible with development and growth.
10) Climate change communication, including IPCC reports, should be elucidated so that they can be easily grasped by general public in order to facilitate a bottomup approach through community involvement.
11) We fully support ECO2, the WB initiative. We believe that developing sustainable cities is a common goal and should be an initiative through the creation of an international working group representing the interests of both developed and developing countries. This group will make recommendations on (respective to each city) Sustainable Cities Goals to adopt a holistic approach. This international initiative will bring cities to share experiences and best practices, develop joint experimentation and an international R&D programs. We also believe that developing sustainable cities should be a multi-stakeholder process.
Topic 2 – Adaptation of climate change (follow–up to the EU Adaptation Strategy)
1) The Y8+ encourages all governments to adopt national adaptation strategies to reduce the effects of extreme weather events. A specific focus should be set on community-based adaptation strategies, as they help to build the resilience of communities and ecosystems.
2) Moreover, the Y8+ strongly recommends the implementation of regional adaptation institutions or frameworks in order to manage issues missing from national adaptation strategies, such as cross-border management of floods and trans-boundary management of coasts, as the EU Adaptation Strategy is aiming to do within Europe.
3) The Y8+ supports the representation of a global partnership on adaption in a post 2015 Framework.
4) The Y8+ acknowledges the need to help citizens to adapt to climate change and also recognises the importance of changing public behaviours. Therefore we recommend the teaching of sustainable practices at school, the raising of public awareness through media coverage and the training of outreach workers to assist local groups to combine indigenous knowledge with climate adaptation strategies.
5) The Y8+ urges the transfer of technology from between nations. In addition, we encourage the investment in infrastructure support and research with a specific focus on research into drought resilient crops.
6) The Y8+ supports the incentivisation of adaptation initiatives for private sector actors who have taken climate change into account when organising their activities.
7) In order to well adapt to the possible consequences of climate change, the Y8+ urges the international community to establish and enhance emergency mechanisms to deal with climate change related disasters.
8) In the future, the Arctic and Antarctic will become increasingly important and accessible regions for the world. The Y8+ encourages more cooperation on Arctic and Antarctic monitoring and research with regards to ice levels, traffic, and biodiversity. We also acknowledge the need to examine means of international partnership for responding to environmental disasters in the regions, with potential coordination by the United Nations.
9) The Y8+ urges all nations to fulfil their existing pledges to assist nations affected by climate change.
Topic 3 – Green Economic Growth
1) The Y8+ recognises the dual economic and environmental benefit that can be achieved through leveraging green growth. Therefore we support the expansion of policies that promote research, innovation and entrepreneurship while helping to reduce the impacts of climate change. We further recommend capacity building, technology transfer and the implementation of innovative financing mechanisms to allow green growth to spread around the world.
2) The Y8+ believes that energy efficiency is a main driver of green growth. We promote the harmonisation of energy efficiency standards. We also acknowledge the necessity of developing innovative financing mechanism by government. These financing mechanisms like energy savings certificates should be used for initiatives such as buildings’ renovation in order to foster measures which improve energy efficiency. Furthermore, the energy efficiency should be improved by innovative technology which endorses the sustainable lifestyle.
3) The Y8+ urges the international community and private sector to develop renewable energies that do not have negative consequences such as damaging impacts on food prices, food security, land and ecosystem services.
4) We support the idea of carbon pricing as a developmental framework for green economic growth, especially in the developing world, such as the African Carbon Asset Development Facility (ACAD).
5) We promote the creation of national subsidies to support energy efficiency for industrial and home equipment. Therefore, energy efficiency would become a competitive advantage for companies as their products would be cheaper for the consumer to purchase and to use.
6) We urge the government along with the international community and private sector to develop renewable energies that do not have negative consequences such as damaging impacts on food prices, food security, and ecosystem services and does not promote land grabbing.
7) We recognise the relevance of technology and therefore encourage Y8 countries to improve development of and research into friendly environmental technologies, but also to help developing countries through technology transfer and monetary funds, in order to reduce their vulnerability.
8) We encourage adopting energy efficiency measures in all possible sectors and minimising methane emissions from upstream oil and gas production to achieve emission savings.
9) We recommend the creation of training programmes for workers to be able to participate in the green economy. 10) We support the creation of binding international treaties to shift the current energetic matrix to increase the share of sustainable and renewable energy.
Topic 4 –Nuclear Energy
1) The Y8+ recognises that there are international concerns surrounding reactivemining, nuclear power plant-construction and waste-management. We agree that security and safety must be a priority for countries using nuclear energy.
2) We urge each nation to ensure that all operators implement the IAEA Action Plan on nuclear safety in order to apply the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident in 2011. The regulation should follow the latest scientific and technological knowledge, and be updated regularly.
3) Finally, we urge the countries using nuclear energy to adopt the most advanced technology and to have in place a robust crisis management plan.