We, the 94 delegates of Y20, with the absence of India and Saudi Arabia, gathered together at Boğaziçi University in Istanbul on 16-21 August 2015 after having negotiated online for two months prior to the Y20 Summit on the themes of;
1. Youth Unemployment;
2. Youth and Education in the 21st Century; and,
3. Youth’s Contribution to Peace
In addition, we welcome the presence of our permanent guests to Y20, Singapore and Spain, as well as our invited guests from Low Income Developing Countries, Afghanistan, Madagascar, Mongolia and Vietnam, who have provided valuable input into the drafting of the final communiqué.
As we are united by our profound belief that youth can make a positive contribution to the G20 decision-making, the delegates of Y20 Turkey 2015 have adopted the following policy proposals to be submitted to the G20 Leaders.
We thank Turkey for its G20 Presidency and for its support for engaging Youth in G20 decision-making and Youth Commission for Diplomacy and Collaboration (YCDC) for hosting a successful Y20 Summit, and we look forward to our next meeting in Beijing 2016 under the Chinese Presidency.
Istanbul, Turkey – 19 August 2015
1. We strongly urge G20 Leaders to adopt a concrete, quantifiable and collective target on reducing youth unemployment over 10 years in their respective countries.
2. G20 countries should continue to work to develop an enabling ecosystem for start-ups, which supports both entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship, and focuses on developing growth capacity in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) by:
a. giving entrepreneurs access to better credit conditions and access to market and mentorship, by promoting collaboration between public and private sectors, financial institutions, education providers and creative capital, in the form of incubators and accelerators;
b. creating fiscal incentives to equalize the cost-benefit ratio of employing young people with less training and experience;
c. creating and improving digital, accessible services related to firm creation or job search through cooperation between the private sector and education providers.
d. creating a G20 funded exchange program, in the style of Erasmus Mundus, for young entrepreneurs in G20 and Low Income Developing Countries (LIDC) entrepreneurs, in order to foster business and cultural dialogue between societies; e. including entrepreneurship courses in secondary and tertiary education school curricula.
3. We urge G20 countries to recognize the empowering role of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) and increase technology investment, in order to bridge the digital divide and foster entrepreneurship by:
a. providing universal and inclusive access to basic technology infrastructure and internet, and developing affordable hardware and software and digital learning materials, especially in less developed and rural areas, targeting, in particular, women, persons with disabilities and indigenous people;
b. facilitating disadvantaged groups’ contribution to technological innovation by introducing a scholarship and mentoring system, as well as supporting entrepreneurship in the IT sector;
c. setting a concrete and quantifiable target to reduce the gender pay gap and promote inclusiveness in ICT education.
4. We recommend G20 countries take advantage of new technologies and Research and Development (R&D) to intensify job creation, prevent brain drain, and facilitate youth access to the labor market by:
a. facilitating national and international network communication through open data policies, while ensuring adequate protection of personal and national security data;
b. digitizing public services related to firm creation or job searches to make them readily accessible, for example through job market monitors, training centers and cooperatives for short-term internships or closer local cooperation between the private sector and education providers;
c. increasing spending devoted to R&D in digital innovation, material sciences, renewable energies and innovative management.
Youth and Education in the 21st Century
1. We recommend G20 countries eliminate gender disparities in the education and labor environment by promoting gender-sensitive learning content and teaching, tackling soft discrimination in workplace culture and gender-biased professions, such as Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Mathematics (STEAM), and promoting programs to ensure equal access to career opportunities.
2. We urge G20 countries to prioritize education, and enhance the cooperation with the private and non-profit sectors by:
a. creating Educational Banks, modeled on Development Banks, to facilitate the flow of funds into education, endowing these institutions with specific financial technologies like social yield bonds and students loan securitization tools to increase liquidity and lower interest rates;
b. promoting regulation to ensure affordability, full expense coverage, and income contingency of student loans.
3. We advocate for the adequate supply of quality teachers in G20 countries by: a. incentivizing the study of teaching through grants and more accessible student financing in the form of loan assistance relief options, loan forgiveness or deferment; b. providing a procedure to select teachers and promote the teaching profession by developing a performance-based career structure and therefore creating education systems based on qualification attainment and the development of non-cognitive skills.
4. We strongly urge G20 countries to use education as a tool for social cohesion, tolerance and celebration of diversity by:
a. promoting sensitivity towards the struggles of the disenfranchised and respect for diversity, through the enhancement of civic and national peace education curricula, as defined by the United Nations (UN) that aims to eliminate bullying and prevent youth radicalization, as well as to raise a society that promotes a culture of peace;
b. addressing social inequalities by guaranteeing continuous access, outside of teaching hours, to educational and communal spaces, as well as sufficient access to free language courses for children with migratory and minority backgrounds.
5. We urge G20 countries to improve Early Childhood Development by creating interactive parent-focused projects, programs and workshops as well as strengthening intensive forms of help for children with special needs.
6. We recommend G20 countries to reduce the skills mismatch between the education system and the labor market by:
a. increasing students’ access to information on labor market conditions, for example by publishing higher education rankings that prioritize graduate employment rates, teaching quality, and promoting the use of guidance counsellors;
b. improving communication between employers and education providers to ensure that education includes a focus on teaching relevant skills, particularly in STEAM subjects and coding courses, by encouraging education providers to take steps to limit graduate unemployment;
c. promoting the role of internships and work experience as an element of tertiary education and ensuring that students have access to fair remuneration or support in accordance with national labor rights.
7. We urge G20 countries to recognize that demographic change requires a greater availability of learning opportunities in professional life, and therefore encourage the public, private, and non-profit sectors to design new and expand existing youth initiatives, traineeships, and vocational trainings to: a. strengthen intergenerational solidarity and skills transfers; b. better align the skills and needs of new and aging workers to the changing needs of the marketplace through the expansion of lifelong learning opportunities.
8. We urge G20 countries to introduce sustainable economic education from the secondary level, including:
a. education which teaches cost-benefit analysis and personal finance to develop decision making skills in the economic field;
b. teaching general economics, to increase conscious participation in the economic and political debate and to raise awareness about sustainable development issues.
9. We urge G20 countries promote student international mobility and expand opportunities to increase students’ chance in seeking quality education and experience sharing by simplifying the visa granting procedure for students and young scientists, including the reduction of costs and simplification of the visa delivery system.
10. Due to the gap in the quality of education between rural, underdeveloped and urban areas, we urge G20 countries to guarantee basic educational infrastructure and services, including internet access, in conjunction with the provision of support systems to encourage education attendance and online cross-degrees.
Youth’s Contribution to Peace
1. We recommend G20 countries to improve youth participation in economic and social policy making and formalize the intertwined link between economic and social development, and peace by: a. permanently institutionalizing a peace discussion in future G20 and Y20 summits; b. encouraging dialogue between LIDCs, G20 governments and relevant NGOs, through the creation of a Y20 contact group with LIDC youth representatives; c. including youth in an institutionalized social dialogue at the national level on current social and economic law projects, through youth representatives in economic and social councils and similar institutions.
2. We recommend G20 countries to recognize migration as an international public good, which promotes dialogue among youth from different cultures, favoring tolerance and reciprocity, by:
a. creating standardized qualification testing to recognize the qualifications and skills of migrants, as well as regulating and harmonizing migration flows by granting skills-based work visas;
b. favoring social peace through workforce inclusion and schooling of migrants in country-systems;
c. adopting policies to strengthen and valorize the exchange between different cultures at the educational level, by notably cultivating intercultural and interreligious dialogue.
3. We recommend G20 countries to recognize refugees’ rights, by:
a. bridging the funding gap for regional response plans and addressing humanitarian crises in accordance with the United Nations High Commission for Refugees Guidelines on Temporary Protection or Stay, through a legally binding global resettlement program across the G20 countries granting humanitarian visas, or financial assistance to host states;
b. providing funding to university and community law clinics in recipient and transit countries that offer legal support to refugees entering the labor market and/or educational system of those countries;
c. improving the inclusion of young refugees in all phases of humanitarian and development action to better foster cooperation between refugees and civil society, notably through existing and future refugee councils;
d. supporting Peer-to-Peer Mentorship Programs in schools, between local youth and their migrant-born peers, to provide a safe, inclusive space for cultural and interreligious dialogue.
4. We propose G20 countries adopt a common international norm for forced displacement due to climate change.
5. We recommend G20 countries to enable youth as peaceful agents of change through a global vision of positive peace, defined as not only the lack of physical violence, but also as the equal benefits from universal rights, recognizing positive peace preservation and green growth to be a key factor of wealth creation, and using comprehensive and up-to-date indicators of a country’s welfare and stability, such as the Global Peace Index and Green GDP, to monitor progress in positive peace.